Table 1.

Use of clays as buffer, backfill or sealing materials in operational and planned national disposal facilities

BufferBackfillSealing
Operational facilities
USA (United States Department of Energy 2019)x
 Waste types: long-lived low- and intermediate-level military waste
 Host rock: salt
Hungary (PURAM (RHK Kft.) 2019)
 Waste types: short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastex
 Host rock: crystalline rock (granite)
Applications submitted for disposal facility construction licence
Canada (Ontario Power Generation 2019)
 Waste types: low- and intermediate-level wastex
 Host rock: limestone overlain by clay
Sweden (SKB 2019)
 Waste type: irradiated fuelxxx
 Host rock: crystalline rock (granite)
Finland (Posiva 2019)
 Waste type: irradiated fuelxxx
 Host rock: crystalline rock (granite)
Host rock selected
France (Andra 2019)
 Waste types: long-lived intermediate-level and high-level wastexx
 Host rock: clay
Switzerland (Nagra 2019)
 Waste types: irradiated fuel and long-lived low- and intermediate-level wastexxx
 Host rock: clay
Host rock not yet selected
Canada (NWMO 2019)
 Waste type: irradiated fuelxxx
UK (UK Government 2018)
 Waste type: intermediate level, high level, irradiated fuelxxx