Table 1.

Chronological list of significant Himalayan earthquakes including palaeoseismic earthquakes with approximate dates where no known historical account exists

Date year:month:dayLatitude (° N)Longitude (° E)Low MwHigh MwSource and commentary
844:00:003474.86.57.5Srinagar, Kashmir. Great earthquake occurred during the night – landslide dammed Jhelum at Khadanyar near Baramulla (Stein 1892, 1898; Bilham & Bali 2013) (Fig. 7)
1123:00:003474.86.57.5Srinagar, Kashmir. (Stein 1892, 1898; Iyengar & Sharma 1996, 1998; Iyengar et al. 1999), Sugandhesa Temple damage (Bilham & Bali 2013) (Fig. 7)
1100 ± 5027c. 86.58.59No historical record (Wesnousky et al. 2019)
1223:1 2:2427.785.36.57Nepal (Pant 2002)
1225:06:0727.785.37.58.5Nepal (Pant 2002). One-third of the population of Kathmandu killed. (Sapkota et al. 2013)
1344:09:1427.785.37.58.2Nepal (Pant 2002; Bollinger et al. 2016). Epicentral longitude ±1°
1400 ± 5030828.08.5Western Himalaya (Kumar et al. 2001, 2006)
1501:09:243474.86.57Srinagar, Kashmir. Three months of aftershocks (Bilham & Bali 2013)
1505:06:06*30828.28.9Guge, eastern Nepal and Kumaon (Jackson 2000; Ambraseys & Jackson 2003)
1505:07:06347177.9Kabul, Afghanistan (Ambraseys & Bilham 2003a, b)
1519:01:033571.577.5Bajaur, Afghanistan (Ambraseys & Bilham 2003a, b)
1552Refers to the 1555 earthquake. Misinterpretation of the Prinsep (1858) p. 312 entry on the events in the 3 year reign of Ibrahim II
1555:09:00*34.2574.87.68Kashmir. Baramula 34.25° N, 74.3° E; Srinagar 34.15° N, 74.8° E; Bilarah 33.8° N, 75.1° E; Anantang 33.75° N, 75.2° E; Mareg 33.7° N, 75.6° E; Maru Pergam 33.65° N, 75.7° E (Iyengar & Sharma 1996, 1998; Iyengar et al. 1999; Ambraseys & Jackson 2003; Bashir et al. 2009; Bilham & Bali 2013). Earthquakes for 7 days. Landslides, liquefaction and aftershocks (Bashir et al. 2009; Bilham & Bali 2013)
1669:06:233474.86.57Srinagar, Kashmir. The buildings rocked like cradles. No loss of life (distant event?) (Bashir et al. 2009; Bilham & Bali 2013)
1678 (1779?)3474.86.56.8Srinagar, Kashmir. Persistent shaking. Reconstruction needed (Bashir et al. 2009; Bilham & Bali 2013)
1683:00:003474.86.56.8Srinagar, Kashmir. Shocks continued for a long time, which caused panic among masses. The quake victims constructed new houses (Bashir et al. 2009; Bilham & Bali 2013)
1714:05:0427.589.688.2Bhutan (Hetényi et al. 2016). Two historical accounts, felt reports and trenching.
1736:03:243474.86.57Srinagar, Kashmir. ‘Buildings of the city and hamlets razed to the ground’. Aftershocks for 3 months (Bashir et al. 2009 list this event as 1735)
1752:00:0031.579.86.57Ambraseys & Jackson (2003) list this event as 1751
1779:00:003474.86.57.5(Srinagar and villages in Kashmir Valley) flattened and aftershocks for 14 days. ‘destroyed houses in city and villages with much loss their life’. Aftershocks for 6 weeks: Bashir et al. (2009) list this event as 1778; Oldham (1883) lists it as 1780.
17843474.86.57.5Srinagar, Kashmir. People thrown. Shocks persisted for 6 months. Possibly 1785,
1803:09:01*31.5797.57.9Gangotri, Srinagar (Gharwal), Almora (Ambraseys & Jackson 2003; Rajendran et al. 2013, 2015)
1808:06:0427.785.36.57Nepal (Pant 2002), 21 aftershocks
1828:06:283474.86.57.5Srinagar, Kashmir (Vigne 1844), 1200 houses collapsed, 15 days of aftershocks (Bashir et al. 2009)
1833:08:26*28.8378.587.77.8Nepal (Bilham 1995; Szeliga et al. 2010)
1842:02:1934.4270.837.5Jalalabad (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1842:03:0530.2880.627.2Gharwal (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1845:08:0626.0990.897.1Shillong (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1852:03:3128.0979.177.0Gharwal (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1863:00:003474.86Srinagar, Kashmir (Bashir et al. 2009) Lawrence (1895) indicates 1864
1866:05:23*27.1285.267.4Nepal (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1878:03:0234.4872.187.4Hazara, Pakistan (Szeliga et al. 2010)
1885:05:3034.5474.687.17.5Baramulla, Kashmir (Jones 1885b; Bashir et al. 2009; Szeliga et al. 2010)
1897:06:12*25.1390.078.18.3Shillong (Szeliga et al. 2010; England & Bilham 2015)
1905:04:04*32.63676.7887.87.9Kangra (Szeliga et al. 2010; Szeliga & Bilham 2017)
1908:12:1226.94896.7737
1916:08:2829.7380.7457
1934:01:15*27.5587.098.4Bihar, Nepal (Chen & Molnar 1977, 1983)
1936:05:2728.37883.326.9Nepal
1943:10:2326.70593.8297.2
1947:07:29*28.6393.737.3Chen & Molnar 1977, 1983)
1950:08:15*28.36396.4458.7Assam (28.33° N, 96.76° E: Chen & Molnar 1977)
1964:10:2128.06593.7986.8
1966:03:0631.52580.4876.7
1975:01:1932.39378.5366.8
1988:08:2026.71286.6276.9Udaypur >50 km depth
1991:10:1930.75378.8236.8
2005:10:08*34.45173.6497.6Muzafferapur, Pakistan
2011:09:1827.75688.1416.9
2015:14:25*28.1584.717.8Gorkha, Nepal
  • Prior to 1900, coordinates indicate felt locations or trench locations, not epicentral coordinates. For many historical earthquakes only one report exists, and epicentral longitudes are not known better than 1°. A range of magnitudes is provided for pre-instrumental earthquakes, and case studies are devoted to earthquakes marked with an asterix. A zero month or day indicates that only the year is known.