Table B1.

Model parameters for internal friction angle calculations

Q350 W m−2Radiant heating
p0510 PaAtmospheric pressure
g9.81 m s−2Terrestrial gravity
gM3.71 m s−2Martian gravity
e5.7 × 105 J kg−1Enthalpy of sublimation for CO2
ν1.3 × 10−5 Pa sDynamic viscosity of CO2
ρg5 × 10−2 kg m−3Gas density of CO2
ρi15 kg m−3Solid density of interpore CO2 frost
μtan 30°Bed friction
Fine sandJSC Mars-1Coarse sand
κ0.2 W m K−10.08 W m K−1*0.2 W m K−1Thermal conductivity
c680 J kg−1 K−1448 J kg−1 K−1680 J kg−1 K−1Heat capacity
ρs1.68 × 103 kg m−30.871 × 103 kg m−31.70 × 103 kg m−3Bulk density
k1.51 × 10−10 m23.0 × 10−11 m25.99 × 10−10 m−2Permeability
  • *Seiferlin et al. (2008).

  • Siegler et al. (2012).

  • Where 30° is the assumed initial internal friction angle.