Table 1.

Initial density model

LayerDensity (kg m−3)
Water column2200 (replacement density*)
Sediments2200–2700 (vertical distribution)
Oceanic crust2850
Continental crust
 • upper2750
 • lower2950
Lower crustal bodies3100
Lithospheric mantle
 • down to 700°C isotherm3300
 • down to 900°C isotherm3260
 • down to base of lithosphere3240
Asthenospheric mantle3200
  • *The replacement density for water refers to a sediment-filled ocean and is in accordance with the Bouguer anomaly correction. Densities for the lithospheric mantle are calculated after Sandwell (2001) with ρ(Tl)=ρm[1−α(TlTm)], where Tl is the temperature at the thermal boundary layer, Tm is the mantle temperature, ρm is the mantle density (3200 kg m−3) and α=3.1×10−5. C−1 is the thermal expansion coefficient.