Table 1.

Summary description of the studied sites: For practical considerations, sections 11, 12, 16, 17, 18 and 19 were converged, and so were sections 17, 18 and sections 19, 20

Site No. and nameLongitude LatitudePresent elevation of the B/SM deposit (m)Inferred MIS 5e sea level (m asl*)Vertical magnitude and rate of uplift since the MIS 5e stage referred to sea levels of 6.5 m since 116 ka or 7.2 m since 122 kaDirection of the cliff face (CF) Pointing to the East (E.), West (W.), West-North West (W-NW), North-North West (N-NW), etc., and commentsInner Edge VisibleDeposition Environments of the Late Pleistocene DepositsNo. of mollusc species living at a water depth of up to 5, 10, 20 m, total No. of mollusc species, index fossils in the deposit
1 Apostolos Andreas monastery, Karpasia34°34′29″
35°39″34″
7.5–12.5±0.5 (7.5 m near the coast, 12.5 m inland)≥12.5±0.5≥6±1.58 m,
≥51.72±13.64 mm ka−1
≥5.3±1.39 m,
≥43.44±11.61 mm ka−1
CF: E. The lower part of the sandstone complex above the marl consists of 6 m-thick finely sorted coarse sandstone containing no shells+Top–FS
Bottom–SF
0, 0, 0, 2 (Horowitz 1964) reported of Persististrombus latus in the region.
2 Yialousa, Karpasia Bay34°13′06″
35°33′23″
8–13±0.5≥13±0.5≥6.5±1.58 m,
≥56.03±13.64 mm ka−1
≥5.8±1.39 m,
≥47.54±11.65 mm ka−1
CF: W-NW. Present-day beachrocks at sea level containing Greek/Roman sherds, Cladocora+Top–FS
Bottom–SF
22, 4, 3, 83
3 Flamoudi33°51′38″
35°24′58″
19.5–23.5±0.5≥23.5±0.5≥17±1.58 m,
≥146.55±13.69 mm ka−1
≥16±1.39 m,
≥133.61±13.17 mm ka−1
CF: N-NW. The layer overlaying the B/SM deposit consists of several metre thick, finely sorted coarse carbonatic sandstone with no shells.+Top–BS
Bottom–FS

0, 0, 0, 4.
4 Davlos33°55′04.5″
35°26′5.3″
17–20±0.5≥20±0.5≥13.5±1.58 m, ≥116.38±13.64 mm ka−1 ≥12.8±1.39 m,
≥104±12.53 mm ka−1
CF: NW. Similar to sections in sites 3, 4 and 5, CladocoraTop and bottom–FS5, 3, 6, 25

5 Akanthou–archaeological site33°44′54″
35°24′17.8″
13–15.5±0.5≥15.5±0.5≥9±1.58 m,
≥77.59±13.65 mm ka−1 ≥8.3±1.39 m,
≥68.03±11.9 mm ka−1
CF: W-NW. PPN Prehistoric material on top of the section. Travertine deposits and dense vegetation associated with freshwater spring at the upper terrace, 13 m asl, Cladocora+Top–FS
Bottom–SF
12, 5, 6, 53
6 Agia Marina33°40′12″
35°21′51″
12–17±0.5≥17±0.5≥10.5±1.58 m,
≥90.52±13.65 mm ka−1
≥9.8±1.39 m,
≥80.33±12.08 mm ka−1
CF: N. PN Prehistoric site on top of the cliff near the springs, Cladocora+Top–FS
Bottom–BS
8, 2, 4, 37
Persististrombus latus, Bursa granularis, Conus ermineus
7 Kyrenia memorial–east of the port castle33°19′30.36″
35°20′26″
6.5–8.7±0.5 (6.5 m in the north, and 8.7 m south inland)≥8.7±0.5≥2.2±1.58 m,
≥18.97±13.63 mm ka−1
≥1.5±1.39 m,
≥12.3±11.43 mm ka−1
CF: W-NW. Ancient quarries, 1–2 ka old, on top of the cliff. The B/SM deposit is 0.5 m thick and down-warping northwards, Cladocora+Top–BS
Bottom–FS
6, 3, 1, 22
Persististrombus latus, Conus ermineus
8 Kyrenia West–Agios Georgios (Mercure Hotel)33°15′22.14″
35°21′01″
3–8±0.5≥8±0.5≥1.5±1.58 m,
≥12.93±13.63 mm ka−1
≥0.8±1.39 m,
≥6.56±11.42 mm ka−1
CF: NW. Cladocora±Top–BS
Centre–FS
Bottom–SF
5, 0, 0, 6
At least eight whole specimens of Persististrombus latus, found in situ and several more in detached blocks
9 Lapithos33°09′53″
35°21′8.1″
0.5–2.5±0.5≥2.5±0.5≥−4±1.58 m,
≥−34±13.63 mm ka−1
≥−4.7±1.39 m,
≥−38.52±11.57 mm ka−1
CF: NW. Lower 0.3 m of B/SM deposit is poorly sorted, with many shellsTop–BS
Bottom–FS
4, 2, 2, 19
10 Lemba–Mylouthkia32°23′17.1″
34°49′39.2″
4–8 m±0.5 (4 m near the coast, 8 m inland)≥8±0.5≥1.5±1.58 m,
≥12.93±13.63 mm ka−1
≥0.8±1.39 m
≥6.56±11.42 mm ka−1
CF: SW. The sections are near the early Neolithic site of Mylouthkia that include ancient water wells. Fresh water spring appear at the bottom of the cliff+Top–BS
FS
1, 0, 0, 2
11, 12 Lemba south (Syntana hotel)32°23′22.5″
34°49′30.2″
16–18.2±0.5≥18.2±0.5≥11.7±1.58 m,
≥100.86±13.66 mm ka−1
≥11±1.39 m,
≥90±12.25 mm ka−1
CF: SW. Poorly sorted B/SM deposit with many whole shells.+Top & Bottom–FS0, 1, 0, 3
13 Larnaca lake, inland west section33°36′21″
34°53′25.4″
4–5±0.5≥5±0.5≥−1.5±1.58 m,
≥−12.93±13.63 mm ka−1
≥−2.2±1.39 m,
≥−18.03±11.45 mm ka−1
CF: SE. The cliff on the west coast of the Larnaka lake.±Top &
Bottom–SF
1, 2, 0, 18
14 Larnaca airport–terminal hill33°37′15″
34°53′0.1″
6–8.5±0.5≥7±0.5≥0.5±1.58 m,
≥4.31±13.63 mm ka−1
≥−0.2±1.39 m,
≥−1.64±11.42 mm ka−1
CF: W-SW. A cliff on the S/E coast of lake Larnaka, Cladocora.±Top–SF
Bottom–FS
9, 4, 8, 44
Persististrombus latus, has been reported in the region before
15 Larnaca–east section33°37′59.3″
34°53′49.77″
4–6±0.5≥6±0.5≥−0.5±1.58 m,
≥−4.31±13.63 mm ka−1
≥−1.2±1.39 m,
≥−9.84±11.43 mm ka−1
CF: N. A hill some 500 m inland, between Larnaka lake and the Mediterranean coastline.±Top &
Bottom–FS
2, 1, 1, 14
16, 17 Cape Greco–south bay–south and north sections34°04′50.9″
34°57′42.8″
0–10±0.5≥10±0.5≥3.5±1.58 m,
≥30.17±13.63 mm ka−1
≥2.8±1.39 m,
≥22.95±11.47 mm ka−1
CF: N-NW. The marl is not visible ASLTop–BS
Bottom–SF&FS
2, 0, 2, 9
18, 19 Cape Greco–north bay section34°04′40.43″
34°57′58.7″
3–10±0.5≥10±0.5≥3.5±1.58 m,
≥30.17±13.63 mm ka−1
≥2.8±1.39 m,
≥22.95±11.47 mm ka−1
CF: NW. The uppermost section of the B/SM deposit is micro laminated, with cross bedding, Cladocora.±Top–BS
Bottom–FS
1, 0, 0, 11
20 Cape Greco north (chapel) section34°04′33″
34°58′32″
8–18±0.5≥18±0.5≥11.5±1.58 m,
≥00.14±13.66 mm ka−1
≥10.8±1.39 m,
≥88.52±12.22 mm ka−1
CF: NW. A limestone deposit with fossil shells is sandwiched between the underlying marl and overlaying B/SM deposit, Cladocora.±Top &
Bottom–SF
0, 0, 0, 3
21 Famagusta bay (Sea side Hotel)33°53′59″
35°12′28″
5–7±0.5≥7±0.5≥0.5±1.58 m
≥4.31±13.63 mm ka−1
≥−0.2±1.39 m,
≥−1.64±11.42 mm ka−1
CF: E. The upper 0.3 m of B/SM deposit contain many whole and broken shells+Top–FS
Bottom–SF
1, 0, 0, 3
22 Famagusta bay (Cristal Rock Hotel)33°53′58″
35°12′42.5″
0.7–8±0.5
0.7–2.5 m at the coast, and 8 m asl 70 m inland
≥8±0.5≥1.5±1.58,
≥12.93±13.63 mm ka−1
≥0.8±1.39 m,
≥6.56±11.42 mm ka−1
CF: E. Beachrocks with pottery sherds at present SL+Top–FS
Bottom–SF
7, 3, 2, 20
A broken specimen of Persististrombus latus, found in situ 1 m above SL.
  • Elevations are given in metres asl with ±0.5 m measuring error. The magnitude (in m) and rate (in mm ka−1) of vertical changes are calculated taking into account that all of the studied beach deposits belong to the last interglacial highstand MIS 5e (see the Discussion). The average elevation of 7.2 m asl and the age of 122 ka proposed for the MIS 5e stage by Kopp et al. (2009) were used for the calculations. We also referred to the age of 116 ka and the elevations of 5 and 8 m asl used in previous studies on the Cyprus coasts (i.e. Poole et al. 1990; Poole & Robertson 1991). The deposition environment (SF, shoreface; FS, foreshore; BS, backshore) is assumed based on lithofacies considerations (grain size, lamination, sorting, dipping and index fossils) and the presence of mollusc species that lived in the shoreface and foreshore environments (Table 2). Given that the inner edge of the B/SM deposits is not always visible and may be higher than observed, the values of vertical change and rate of change are considered here as the minimal possible ones, while the true values may be even higher (see the Discussion). The Comments column also indicates the existence of coral and archaeological indicators. The inner edge column indicates the existence or lack of visible inner edge (marked with+or −) or indications of the possible existence of a nearby inner edge which is not visible (marked with+or −). The right-hand column of the table summarizes the number of mollusc species living at a water depth of up to 5 m, up to 10 m and up to 20 m, as well as the total number of mollusc species identified in the deposit, including those that live in deeper water and those for which the depth cannot be determined. Also in this column are notes about the presence of index fossil molluscs.