Table 1.

What is geoconservation? Geoconservation and the steps leading up to it

Activity relating to geological/ geomorphological features, processes, sites and specimensExamples of activityComments
Initial awarenessAppreciation that geological/geomorphological features, processes, sites and specimens existNot geoconservation—just awareness of natural environment or heritage/culture
Examination, description, scientific auditSpecimen collecting for curiosity, visiting and describing features, sites etc., geological mapping/surveyNot geoconservation—collecting and scientific description. Classification and taxonomy start of scientific thinking
Value/appreciationRetaining specimens, telling others about features, sites etc., drawing and painting of features, sites etc.Not geoconservation—but a subconscious state likely to result in support of conservation if a threat is perceived
Awareness of threat/perceived threatConcern and desire to actNot geoconservation—but likely to be followed by geoconservation
Unintentional or coincidental activity that leads to a geoconservation benefitConservation of valued woodland, including a geological feature that coincidentally benefits from conservation of the woodlandGeoconservation ? ‘Grey area’ No intent here, likely area for debate
Conservation auditAn assessment of what is important to keep and where it is e.g. the GCRGeoconservation—action to identifying conservation priorities
Protection through legal/policy meansConservation legislation or National Park/planning policyGeoconservation—action to protect through law or practice
ManagementPurchase of land or specimen, creation of reserve, securing of a site, enhancement of an exposureGeoconservation—direct action to protect or manage
Awareness raising of importance of featureInterpretation, books, media, lobbying of politicians, education, involvement of local communityGeoconservation—indirect action to build support for conservation
Development of a holistic approach to conservation showing the interdependence of all aspects of natureIntegrated landscape scale approaches, integrated biodiversity/geodiversity/ landscape/archaeology conservationGeoconservation—as part of a strategic, holistic and integrated approach to managing the natural environment