Table 1.

TNO zonation based on highest and lowest occurrences (HO and LO) of dinoflagellate cysts. Chronostratigraphy and absolute ages are in accordance with Ogg et al. (2016)

ZoneSubzoneAgeDefinitionRemarks
DCZ 1Bathonian–Early Kimmeridgian
168–154.7 Ma
From LO Adnatosphaeridium caulleryi to HO Limbodinium ridingii
DCSZ 1ABathonian–Callovian
168–163.5 Ma
From FO Adnatosphaeridium caulleryi to HO Durotrigia filapilicata, Pareodinia prolangata and Lithodinia jurassicaFO Adnatosphaeridium caulleryi is calibrated to the Zigzag Chronozone (1); HO Durotrigia filapicata, Pareodinia prolongata and Lithodinia jurassica are calibrated to the Lamberti Chronozone (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
DCSZ 1BEarly Oxfordian
163.5–161 Ma
From HO Durotrigia filapicata, Pareodininia prolongata and Lithodinia jurassica to HO Wanaea spp. and HO common Rigaudella aemulaHO Wanaea spp. is calibrated to the Cordatum Chronozone (8); HO common of Rigaudella aemula is calibrated to the Cordatum Chronozone (7)
DCSZ 1CMiddle Oxfordian
161–159.8 Ma
From to HO Wanaea spp. and HO common Rigaudella aemula to HO Trichodinium scarburghensis and Rigaudella aemulaHO Trichodinium scarburghensis is calibrated to the Plicatilis Chronozone; HO Rigaudella aemula is calibrated to the Pumilus Chronozone (1, 9, 10). Note that the densiplicatum Climate Shift occurs in DCSZ 1C (11, 29, 30).
DCSZ 1DLate Oxfordian
159.8–157.5 Ma
From HO Trichodinium scarburghensis and Rigaudella aemula to HO abundant Rhynchodiniopsis cladophoraHO abundant Rhynchodiniopsis cladophora and HO Stephanelytron redcliffense are in the Pseudocordata Chronozone (7, 9, 12). HO Compositosphaeridium polonicum is in the Cautisnigrae Chronozone (13).
DCSZ 1EEarly Kimmeridgian
157.5–154.7 Ma
From HO abundant Rhynchodiniopsis cladophore to HO Limbodinium ridingii or HO Scriniodinium crystallinumHO Limbodinium ridingii is calibrated to the Cymodoce Chronozone (8). HO Scriniodinium crystallinum is calibrated to the Baylei Chronozone (1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15).
DCZ 2Late Kimmeridigian–Middle Volgian
154.7–146.6 Ma
From HO Limbodinium ridingii or HO Scriniodinium crystallinum to HO Glossodinium dimorphum, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Dichadogonyaulax pannaea
DCSZ 2ALate Kimmeridgian
154.5–152.2 Ma
From HO Limbodinium ridingii or HO Scriniodinium crystallinum to HO Endoscrinium luridumHO Endoscrinium luridum is calibrated to the Autissiodorensis Chronozone (1, 9, 15, 16). FO Dichadogonyaulax pannea and Corculodinium inaffectum is calibrated to the Mutabilis Chronozone (23, 15, 16, 17, 19).
DCSZ 2BEarly Volgian
152.2–149.8 Ma
From HO Endoscrinium luridum to HO Oligosphaeridium patulumHO Oligosphaeridium patulum is calibrated to the Pectinatus Chronozone (15, 20, 21). HO abundant Oligosphaeridium patulum is calibrated to the Hudlestoni Chronozone (9, 19, 21). LO Gochteodinia mutabilis and Cribroperidinium hansenii are calibrated to the Scitulus Chronzone (1, 2, 9, 23). HO of Corculodinium inaffectum and Corculodinium paeminosum are calibrated to the Wheatleyensis Chronozone (19). Note that the scitulus Climate Shift occurs in DCSZ 2B (11, 29, 30).
DCSZ 2CMiddle Volgian (p.p.)
149.8–148 Ma
From HO Oligosphaeridium patulum to HO Occisucysta baliosHO Occisucysta balios is calibrated to the Fittoni Chronozone (2, 23 24)
DCSZ 2DMiddle Volgian (p.p.)
148–146.6 Ma
From HO Occisucysta balios to the HO Glossodinium dimorphum, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Dichadogonyaulax pannaeaHO Glossodinium dimorphum, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Dichadogonyaulax pannaea are calibrated to the Anguiformis Chronozone (2, 9, 15, 19, 21, 22). HO Scriniodinium inritibile is calibrated to the Albani Chronozone (2, 15, 16).
DCZ 3Late Volgian–Late Ryazanian
146.6–139 Ma
From HO Glossodinium dimorphum, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Dichadogonyaulax pannaea to HO Dingodinium spinosum
DCSZ 3ALate Volgian (p.p.)
147–146 Ma
From HO Glossodinium dimorphum, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Dichadogonyaulax pannaea to HO abundant Cribroperidinium hanseniiHO abundant Cribroperidinium hansenii is calibrated to the Primitivus Chronozone (8, 25). HO Egmontodinium polyplacophorum is calibrated to the Opressus or Primitivus Chronozone (2, 8, 9).
DCSZ 3BLate Volgian (p.p.)–Early Ryazanian
146–141 Ma
From HO abundant Cribroperidinium hansenii to HO Rotosphaeropsis thula and Systematophora daveyiHO Rotosphaeropsis thula and Systematophora daveyi are calibrated to the Kochi Chronozone (8, 15, 25, 26, 27). HO Gochteodinia virgula and Egmontodinium expiratum are calibrated to the Runctoni Chronozone (2, 8, 9, 25). Note that the kochi Climate Shift occurs in DCSZ 3B (11, 29, 30).
DCSZ 3CLate Ryazanian
141–139.5 Ma
From HO Rotosphaeropsis thula and Systematophora daveyi to HO Dingodinium spinosum and Egmontodinium torynumHO Dingodinium spinosum and Egmontodinium torynum are calibrated to the Albidum Chronozone (8, 9, 22, 28, 27). LO Oligosphaeridium diluculum is calibrated to the Icenii Chronozone Ammonite Zone (2, 9). HO common Oligosphaeridium diluculum and HO of Daveya boresphaera are calibrated to the Stenomphalus Chronozone (8, 22, 25, 32).
DCZ 4Valanginian–Early Barremian
139.5–129 Ma
From HO Dingodinium spinosum and Egmontodinium torynum to HO of Kleithriasphaeridium corrugatum
DCSZ 4AEarly Valanginian (p.p.)
139.5–139 Ma
From HO Dingodinium spinosum and Egmontodinium torynum to HO of Tehamadium daveyiHO Tehamadium daveyi and HO Endoscrinium pharo are calibrated to the Paratollia Chronozone (22, 15, 25, 27)
DCSZ 4BEarly Valanginian (p.p.)
139–138.5 Ma
From HO of Tehamadium daveyi to HO Systematophora palmulaHO Systematophora palmula is calibrated to the Poyptychites Chronozone (22, 27)
DCSZ 4CEarly (pars.) Valanginian–Late Valanginian
138.5–134.5 Ma
From to HO Systematophora palmula to HO Lagenorthytis delicatulaHO Lagenorthytis delicatula is calibrated to the Amblygonium Chronozone (27, 31). LO Nelchinopsis kostromiensis is calibrated to the Dichotomites Chronozone (27).
DCSZ 4DEarly Hauterivian–Late Hauterivian (p.p.)
134.5–131.5 Ma
From HO Lagenorthytis delicatula to HO Canningia cf. reticulataHO Canningia cf. reticulata is calibrated to the base Variabilis Chronozone (22, 27, 28,31). HO Batioladinium varigranosum is calibrated to the Noricum Chronozone (27). LO Subtilisphaera perlucida is calibrated to the Speetonense Chronozone (27). LO Cribroperidinium confossum is calibrated to the Gottschei Chronozone (28, 33, 34).
DCSZ 4ELate Hauterivian (p.p.)
131.5–131 Ma
From HO Canningia cf. reticulata to HO Nelchinopsis kostromiensisHO Nelchinopsis kostromiensis and Cribroperidinium confossum are calibrated to the Variabilis Chronozone (28, 33, 34, 35).
DCSZ 4FEarly Barremian
131–129 Ma
From HO Nelchinopsis kostromiensis to the HO Kleithriasphaeridium corrugatumHO Kleithriasphaeridium corrugatum and Muderongia simplex are calibrated to the Elegans Chronozone (28, 35, 37). LO Odontochitina operculate is calibrated to the Rarocinctum Chronozone (27).
  • References: (1) Riding & Thomas (1992); (2) Riding (1987); (3) Prauss (1989); (4) Riding & Bailey (1991); (5) Feist-Burkhardt & Wille (1992); (6) Woollam (1980); (7) Riley & Fenton (1982); (8) Herngreen et al. (2000); (9) Partington et al. (1993b); (10) Fauconnier (1995); (11) Abbink (1998); (12) Kunz (1990); (13) Poulsen (1998); (14) Århus et al. (1989); (15) Poulsen (1996); (16) Poulsen (1994); (17) Nøhr-Hansen (1986); (18) Ioannides et al. (1988); (19) Riding & Thomas (1988); (20) Riley (1979); (21) Bailey et al. (1997); (22) Davey (1979a; b); (23) Barron (1989); (24) Munsterman et al. (2012); (25) Davey (1982a; b); (26) Riding & Davey (1989); (27) Costa & Davey (1992); (28) Duxbury (1977); (29) Abbink et al. (2001); (30) Abbink et al. (2006); (31) Heilmann-Clausen & Birkelund (1987); (32) Birkelund et al. (1983); (33) Harding (1990); (34) Kirsch & Below (1995); (35) Duxbury (2001); (36) Mutterlose & Harding (1987); (37) Duxbury (1980); and (38) Heilmann-Clausen & Thomsen (1995).