Table 1.

Summary showing thickness information for anthropogenic deposits, and selected examples of natural superficial and bedrock formations in the London area based on 3D geological modelling (Ford et al. 2010b)

Unit typeUnit nameMaximum thickness (m)Mean thickness (m)Standard deviation90th percentileVolume (km3)
AnthropogenicMade ground261.42.60.10
Infilled ground3923.80.07
Made and infilled ground combined391.63.0530.17
Natural superficialTaplow Gravel Formation*153.72.560.55
BedrockThanet Formation5012.86.42022.17
  • *Taplow Gravel Formation, subsequently reclassified as a member in the Maidenhead Formation by McMillan et al. (2011). The distribution of thicknesses for the units shown in bold are compared in Figure 8.